Located in the back of
the lower leg close to the heel. Pain is usually worse upon
rising out of bed and then feels better as the day progresses.
Pain is usually felt at the beginning of exercise. The likely
cause is overuse of the lower leg muscles, direct trauma,
poor flexibility or pronation (inner or outer turning of the
feet). Injury can be prevented through proper tendon flexibility,
warming up prior to sport, stop activity at first sign of
pain or stiffness, wearing shoes with proper arch support.
Self-treatment should take the form of rest, ice, massage,
mild stretching of the tendon when pain has decreased, acupuncture.
Located at the bottom of
the feet, characterized with pain from a mild ache to sharp
pain, usually worse in the morning upon rising and at the
beginning of exercise. The
likely cause is sports requiring continued running, improper
shoes, sudden turns and pronation. Injury can be prevented
by wearing proper shoes, orthotics, rest and heel pads. Self-treatment
should take the form of rest, orthotics, massage.
Located in the front of the leg on the outer surface of the
shin bone, where muscle attaches to bone, or in the back and
inside portion of the lower leg toward the inner ankle. The
likely causes are exercising on hard surfaces, muscular imbalance,
pronation, and overuse. Injury can be prevented by proper
warm-up and conditioning prior to exercise. Self-treatment
should take the form of rest, ice, massage and gentle stretching.
Located at the outer surface
of the ankle. The likely causes are running/jumping on uneven
surfaces, weakness/imbalance of the muscles around the ankle.
Injury can be prevented by keeping the ankle flexible and
strong. Self-treatment should take the form of rest, ice,
compression, and elevation. Ice the area as quickly as possible
for 20 to 30 minutes, repeat the icing several times. Do not
apply ice directly to the skin.
Located in the bones of
the lower leg and small bones of the feet. Usually there is
sharp intense pain that increases with direct pressure. The
likely causes are repeated running/jumping on hard surfaces.
Injury can be prevented by being in good physical condition
prior to participation in activity, jumping/running on softer
surfaces or surfaces designed for jumping and running. Self-treatment
should take the form of stop running and jumping until pain
subsides and wearing shoes with good cushioning.
For all of
these conditions a doctor trained in sports medicine, acupuncture,
massage therapy or chiropractics is highly recommended.